With the help of observations from the ALMA radio observatory in Chile, scientists for the first time have seen a warped disk around a baby protostar that formed only thousands of years back. This indicates that the misalignment in many planetary systems for planetary orbits might be caused by disturbance in the planet-making disk.
The planets in our solar system revolve the sun in planes that are at most almost 7 Degrees offset from the sun’s equator. It has been recognized for some time that many systems have planets that are not aligned with the equator or in one plane of the star. One clarification for this is that some of the planets may have been impacted by stars passing by the system or by collisions with other starts in the system, removing them from their original orbital plane.
On the other hand, the possibility stayed that the making-up of planets out of the ordinary plane was really caused by a covering of the star-making cloud out of which the planets were made.
On a related note, astronomers with the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) have performed one of the most profound studies ever of protoplanetary disks. These disks are quasi-steady circumstellar disks of dust and gas, from which stars might gradually form or be in the process of shaping forming.
The top models for of formation planet hold that stars are born by the eventual accumulation of gas and dust within a protoplanetary disk, starting with molecules of dust that coalesce to make larger and larger rocks, until planetesimals, asteroids, and planets form.
This hierarchical procedure must take many millions of years to understand, recommending that its affect on protoplanetary disks might be most widespread in more mature & older systems. Mounting proof, on the other hand, shows that is not always the situation.